Indexed in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, PubMed and VINITI Russian Academy of Sciences. The full text content is available through EBSCO databases.

Peer-reviewed, monthly journal committed to promoting the science and art of medicine and the betterment of public health. Published by Georgian Business Press LLC with participation of GMN Editorial Board since 1994. GMN carries original scientific articles on medicine, biology and pharmacy, which are of experimental, theoretical and practical character; publishes original research, reviews, commentaries, editorials, essays, medical news, and correspondences in English and Russian.


Wollina U.

Both lipedema and juxta-articular adiposis dolorsa are painful disorders of subcutaneous adipose tissue. We investigated 297 female patients with lipedema treated at our department for the presence of juxta-articular adiposis dolorsa.

Nizharadze N., Mamaladze M.

The search for an understanding of the genesis of tooth decay spans millennia. streptococcus mutans have been proposed as the main etiological agents of dental cariessince the species discovery in 1924. However “Omics” era has provided a unique opportunity to unravel contemporary paradigms in the etiology of dental caries.

Rahardjo H.E. and Others

Phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes are considered being key proteins in controlling the function of smooth musculature in the human urinary tract. The use of PDE inhibitors (PDE-Is) to treat erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptomatology (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is well established. It has been shown that PDE-Is can reverse the tension induced by means of muscarinergic agents of detrusor smooth muscle and enhance the production of cyclic nucleo-tides. In clinical settings, the PDE1 inhibitor vinpocetine had beneficial effects in patients presenting with voiding dysfunctions. 

Sevbitov A. and Others

The aim of the research was to study the impact of smoking steam cocktails on dental status.

The study of dental status was carried out by means of a questionnaire, a detailed survey and a clinical examination of patients. The questionnaire was used to determine the level of evaluation of motivation to quit smoking. During the survey of patients, the subjective state of the oral cavity was determined, namely, the presence of dryness of the oral cavity, unpleasant smell, burning sensation, pain in the tongue, impaired taste sensations, and whether there was a metallic taste. Then an external examination was carried out, an examination of the vestibule of the oral cavity, an examination of the dentition itself.

Tsomaia K. and Others

Liver regeneration followed by liver resection is one of the most frequently studied processes, both in the clinic and in the experiment [1, 3, 6, 7,2 3, 25, 26]. Dramatically is increased frequency of liver resection in recent years. This is due, on the one hand, to increased cases of space occupying liver pathologies which were previously considered as inoperative, including through endoscopic intervention [14] and on the other hand, the increase in the frequency of liver resections is associated with widespread transplantations ofhalfliver from a living donor.

According to the data of Eurotransplant International Foundation in 2019 in Europe 116 cases of liver transplantation were performed from living donor. The United Network for Organ Sharing reports 524 liver transplantation from living donor. In total, between 1988 and October 31, 202 7715 liver transplantation were performed in the United States from a living donor.

Taner Demirci and Others

We present a case of androgen and glucocorticoid secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma. A giant adrenal tumor which was initially nonfunctional was reassessed four years later due to the patient's refusal to treat. The patient was a 48-year-old woman with hypertension and acne lesions on the face. Laboratory findings were consistent with glucocorticoid and androgen hypersecretion. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneously contrasting mass of 145xl18x100 mm with lobular contour and soft tissue areas. The patient underwent left laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy with three port technique. 

There were no complications in the perioperative period. The resected specimen weighed 850 grams. Pathological findings showed a combination of myelolipoma-adrenal cortical cancer. 

Halushko O. and Others

Among the main risk factors for the development of a severe course of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are old age, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

The aim of this study was determining the main causes of complicated COVID-19 course in diabetic patients.

Publications were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar for keywords: COVID-19, diabetes, hyperglycemia, carbohydrate metabolism disorders, and complications.

The review of scientific literature considers the main causes and pathogenetic mechanisms of COVID-19 complications development in patients with DM. Groups of factors that worsen the disease course were identified. We also proved that modern treatment of COVID-19 in diabetic patients should consider all risk factors and include a multidisciplinary team approach with specialists in emergency medicine, endocrinology, infectious diseases, respiratory support, nutrition and rehabilitation.

Voitiv Y. and Others

The aim. To analyze the frequency of polymorphic variants of MMP-2 (C-1306 → T) and TIMP-2 (G303 → A) genes in patients with anastomotic leak in hollow digestive organs.

The object of the study comprises 61 patients with anastomotic leak and connective tissue pathology, all treated at the Shalimov National Institute of Surgery and Transplantology during 2016-2019. Laboratory, genetic, histological studies and statistical analysis were performed.

As a result of genetic and statistical analysis of the MMP- 2 (C-1306 → T) and TIMP-2 (G303 → A) gene polymorphisms, genotype variants have been identified that are associated with the risk of anastomotic leak in hollow digestive organs. 

Bekisheva A. and Others

Malnutrition is one of the complications following surgical resection of the colon. Aim - to study the impact of enteral nutritional supplements and high-calorie diet on to nutritional status and quality of life within 12 months after surgical treatment.

220 patients after surgery of the colon cancer are divided into 3 groups: group 1 (G1 n=68) - enteral nutrition, group 2 (G2 n=64) - high-calorie diet, group 3 (G3 n=88) - patients with baseline high PNI, follow-up. Nutritional status, NRS-2002 and EORTC QLQ C 30 questionnaire were analyzed.

Giorgobiani G. and Others

There is yet no generally accepted incisional hernia classification.This article highlights practical issues of classi cation, treatment modalities, and multidisciplinary decision-making. We summarized many existing classi cations of hernia and suggested the classi cation that facilitates pre-operative, intra and postoperative planning. Progressive Preoperative Pneumo- peritoneum effectively helps to overcome postoperative respiratory complications. For big defects, we use Botox injections in according to Thomas Ibarra-Hurtado method one month prior to surgery. Rives-Stoppa procedure is a golden standard in incisional hernia repair. Component Separation (anterior and posterior) gives good results as well. It maintains exibility of anterior abdominal wall. 

Fartushok T.

World Health Organization has declared coronavirus disease (COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2) a pandemic. There is little evidence regarding the negative impact of COVID-19 infection on women’s reproductive health. 

Previous coronavirus outbreaks that occurred in previous years are known to include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which was  rst reported in 2012. So far, there is no evidence that pregnant women are more sus- ceptible to COVID-19 than the general population. This short review provides a review of the scientific literature, which highlights the classi cation of respiratory viruses, transmission routes, transmission factors, virus-related diseases, case determination of COVID-19, clinical symptoms of COVID-19, laboratory diagnostics of COVID-19, algorithm the doctor’s actions to examine patients, the impact on pregnancy, the treatment of pregnant women, women in childbirth and puerperas, as well as tactics of managing newborns in a pandemic, measures to prevent spread in a medical institution are highlighted. 

Savchuk R. and Others

The main treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy with creation of an articial intestinal bladder with restoration of transurethral urination is recognized as the best method of urine derivation. 

Aim – to study the urodynamic features of the arti cial bladder. 

The main study group consisted of 57 patients with invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy with ileocystoplasty in several specialized centers.

Tyagelov O. and Others

Objective - to study the e ect of hip contractures on the strength of the thigh muscles.

Gait analysis was performed in the OpenSim 4.0 program, gait2394 was taken as the basis. Created 4 models with contractures of varying severity. 

We analyzed the change in the work of the thigh muscles in normal conditions, with adduction, exion-adduction and exion-adduction contractures with shortening. According to the data obtained in modeling the adductive and exor-adducing contractures of the hip joint, it can be noted that contracture changes the work of the muscles around the hip joint. It was noted that modeling only adduction contracture causes noticeable changes in the medial group of femoral muscles and muscle stabilizers. Of the muscles of the posterior thigh group, m.semimembranosus, m.semitendinosus and m.biceps femoris are most susceptible to changes. These muscles change the level of load, and most importantly, periods of excitation and muscle relaxation shift.

Dvali M. and Others

The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between implanted IOL material type to detect CME after NSAID use in cataract surgery. Study involved 94 eyes of 72 patients. Eyes were equally divided into two groups (n-47 in each). Post-operatively treatment regimen for participants from Group I included antibiotic and NSAID eye drops, while participants from group II were treated only with antibiotic eye drops. Acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in all patients comprising both groups. No patient developed cystoid macular edema from either group (CME). In both groups (with or without NSAID eye drops cover) mean central retinal thickness (CRT) was 230±0.005 microns before the surgery. No statisti- cally signi cant changes of CRT was noted in both groups (5± 0.09 microns ) (p<0.5).

Study analysis hasshown, that cystoid macula redema has not developed in patients, who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery with hydrophobic IOL implantation, with or without NSAID eye drop cover. There was no statistically and clinically signi cant difference between the groups in terms of CRT.


Kosenkov A. and Others

Despite significant achievements in the medical treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, the number of patients with complicated course of the disease in the Russian Federation does not have a stable downward trend. If in economically developed countries, the urgency of this problem has decreased, according to the Ministry of healthcare of the Russian Federation, in recent years the decline in the number of planned operations in peptic ulcer disease 2 times, the number of emergency operations increased 2-3 times [14,26]. One of the remaining problems in the surgical treatment of peptic ulcer complications is complicated giant ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. Stomach ulcers with a diameter of more than 3 cm and duodenal ulcers with a diameter of more than 2 cm are called «gigantic ulcers» [31]. 

Kravchun P. and Others

Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases in humans, a ecting more than 1 billion people worldwide. In the general population, the prevalence of hypertension is around 30-45%, but increases rapidly with advanced age [1]. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, which lead to increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [2,3].

Gulatava N. and Others

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a pressing problem in the healthcare, and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. The majority of CHF patients have poor quality of life in spite of the modern evidence-based treatment [3,9]. Dur-ing the past decade, a better realization of the disease process made it clear that the pathological changes a ect not only cardiovascular system, but also neuroendocrine, immune, musculoskeletal, hematological, renal and gastrointestinal systems and nutritional status.

Malnutrition is more common in patients with HF, especially at at its severe stage, and is associated with the risk of complications and high mortality [3,8,9]. Consequently, evaluation of malnutrition in patients with HF, monitoring of patients in this regard, and identifying the right assessment tools are the basis for developing an e ective nutritional strategy that can have a signi cant impact on their treatment and management. Modern literature provides a number of nutritional indices for patients in general population and chronic diseases [5].

Нerasymenko O. and Others

In childhood acute lymphadenides (AL) account for 20 to 51% of purulent-inflammatory diseases in pediatric surgical hospitals. Lymphadenitis (LA) is a disease that is manifested as any enlargement of the lymph nodes (LN) of the in ammatory nature according to the classi cation of ICD where D is coded as L 04 (acute LA) and I 88 (non-speci c LA). In the case of unknown etiology the term lymphadenopathy (LAP) is used at the stage of preliminary diagnosis or other cause of the enlargement of LN and it is coded as R 59 – the enlargement of the lymph nodes. At present there is no clear classi cation of LN lesions both in children and adults. The most common one is the distri- bution according to the etiological factor and the course of the in ammatory process but this classi cation does not fully meet all clinical requirements [1-3].

In Ukraine, however, a high percentage of BCGs has been recorded during recent years. The subclinical course, lack of expressiveness of the symptoms and specific ultrasound manifestations when compared with other lymphadenopathies which are up to 66% of the cases among children determine the di culties in their di erential diagnosis that often requires additional thin- needle aspiration biopsy [4,5].



United States Food and Drug Administration


World Health Organization


European Medicines Agency


American Board of Medical 


Georgian Ministry of Labor, 
Health and Social Affairs


Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the United Nations

Bakradze A. and Others

The essence of prevention, early diagnosis, rather than surgical correction of maxillofacial pathologies, lies in the elimination of primary and/or already developed secondary changes of the upper and lower jaws, occlusion and nasal cavity which simultaneously contributes to more adequate treatment of nasopharyngeal pathologies. Some treatment modalities for narrowed, v-shaped upper jaw expansion allow for a nasal cavity expansion (even on its bony level!) along with dental arch normalization – a problem irresolvable by conservative management. As a result, patient receives a complex treatment aimed at resolution of in ammation or sany other problem in the naso- pharyngeal system, or correction of already developed maxillary abnormalities, and can thereby normalize jaw growth, formation of the face and occlusion [1].

Piasetska L. and Others

According to the World Health Organization, periodontal diseases are among the 12 most common diseases (Global Burden of Disease Study, 2016). The prevalence of periodontal disease, in particular, in children 7-11 years is 30.1-46.7% with an in- crease to 67.5-75.0% in children 12-18 years and up to 92.1% in people aged 19-30 years [1, 2]. Periodontal diseases are the result of exposure to microorganisms of biofilms that realize their pathogenic potential against the background of poor oral hygiene, changes in the properties of oral  fluid, dental-jaw anomalies, somatic diseases, reduction of immunological reactivity of the organism, micro- and macroelements deficiency, etc [3-5].

Karaiev T. and Others

Muscular dystrophies (dystrophinopathies) include a spectrum of muscle pathologies, determined by mutations in the dys- trophin gene on chromosome Xp21, which encodes a dystrophin protein [7,8].

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a prevailing child- hood muscular dystrophy acting upon 1 in 3,500 (2.9 per 10,000) male births [16].

Pypa L. and Others

The disorders of the autonomic nervous system are an actual problem of modern child and adolescent medicine due to the wide prevalence, polymorphism of clinical manifestations as well as the negative impact on the quality of children’s life and adolescents [1].


Filiptsova К.

The statistical data indicate an increase in morbidity and mortality from breast cancer in many countries [5,8]. The incidence of breast cancer, in relation to the total number of cancers is 25% and the risk of its occurrence increases, especially in elderly women [3,16].

Shkvarkovskyj І. and Others

Diseases of the pancreatobiliary system are the most commonin abdominal surgery, and their frequency reaches 30% among adults, and this indicator increases with age [1,2, 4]. For the diagnosis and treatment of such patients direct contrast of biliary or pancreatic duct systems and instrumental access to these systems are needed. 

Demchenko V. and Others

Ureteroplasty with a tubularized pelvis ap is a very rare option for urethral reconstruction. This surgical approach allows replacing extended defects of the upper third of the ureter, and in some cases the entire ureter. Pelvic tubuloplasty can also be used to correct hydronephrosis associated with additional vessels to the lower pole of the kidney. Nowadays there are only a few reports onusing tubular pyeloplasty in literary sources. Not all indications forthis type of reconstruction have been studied yet.

Borisenko A. and Others

Generalized parodontitis and caries complications lead to tooth loss in individuals of different age groups. As a result of this often there is a violation of the integrity of the dentition, which leads to functional disorders of the muscular apparatus, temporomandibular joint and cosmetic defects. The effective method of restoration of the integrity of the dentition is dental implantation. With this in mind, the issue of dental implantation is of particular importance and requires further development including different age groups.

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